Century of medical progress is under threat of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. This is according to a new report published by the Interdepartmental Coordination Group Organization & # 39; the United Nations on antimicrobial resistance (Inter-Agency Coordination). He came to the conclusion that the disease resistance could lead to 10 million people annually by 2050.
The report follows a South African study, which is subject to very serious & # 39; serious shortcomings with the way doctors and nurses prescribing antibiotics.
Currently, at least 700,000 people die every year worldwide due to drug-resistant diseases, including 230,000 people of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Increasingly common diseases including respiratory tract infections, sexually transmitted infections, and urinary tract infections with & # 39 are incurable. Life-saving medical procedures become much more risky because of antibiotic resistance.
"Misuse and abuse of existing antimicrobials in humans, animals and plants that accelerate the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance," according to the report of IAAP. It also indicates that the difficult access to clean water and sanitation increases infections in humans and animals (and therefore the need for antibiotics to be used, increasing the risk of developing resistance).
According to the report, the World Bank estimates that the present value of the measures of antimicrobial resistance is about 9 billion US dollars per year (R126 billion), but to invest that kind of money now can be cost-saving.
South African health professionals destination excessive
A study conducted in a large metropolitan area in South Africa examined the unnecessary use of antibiotics. The results were presented at the Wits University seminar in March.
The study showed that 78% of patients sent to the state hospital and 67% of patients sent to private general practitioners (GPs) were prescribed antibiotics, even if antibiotics are not needed.
Dr Duane Blaauw from the Center for Health Policy at Wits and Dr. Mylene Lagarde with the Department of Health Policy at the London School of Economics, used "mysterious patient". They are trained local workers who were sent to 120 private doctors and 73 government agencies to "submit" to the symptoms of acute bronchitis, but they were young and healthy. (Physicians and facilities – where the secrets of the patients were seen mainly nurses – have agreed to take part in the study, even though they have agreed not to know who the patients are, when they are visiting and what they are trying to verify.)
Antibiotics are not needed for acute bronchitis, because it is a viral infection (antibiotic treatment of bacterial diseases, not those viral). More than 80% of doctors even recognize that acute bronchitis is likely viral, but the results of the study show that, in spite of this knowledge, they have continued to prescribe antibiotics.
One of the reasons, primary care physicians and nurses to explain their unnecessary prescription of antibiotics with the & # 39 is that patients require or expect antibiotics. That did not happen in this study because patients never asked for antibiotics.
The second group of patients was also sent. They clearly told doctors and nurses that they do not want antibiotics, if they were not really needed, but more than half also received. Patients told doctors and nurses that they had a cough, runny nose and sore throat, but they do not have a fever, chest pain, shortness of breath, or any other significant symptoms.
The study found: "Public and private providers of primary health care are not accepted recommendations based on the evidence in the case management of uncomplicated acute bronchitis."
Blaauw said, "The resistance has increased dramatically in the last decade or so, although the figures depend on the bacteria and drugs. Some common bacterial infections are now showing very high rates of antibiotic resistance in South Africa. For example, more than 85%, pneumococcus common cause of pneumonia, with & # 39 are resistant to penicillin, over 60% are resistant to macrolides (broad spectrum antibiotics), and more than 30% at present exhibit resistance to many drugs. "
He said that the doctors and nurses know that resistance to antibiotics from the & # 39; is a serious & # 39; oznay problem, but still not enough suras & # 39; ozna about how their own behavior recipe may be causing the problem.
"Unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions with & # 39 is a difficult problem. Antibiotics are not always bad. For some infections, they are absolutely necessary. The problem is that if they are prescribed, if they are not shown, which may mean that they will not be effective in the future, if we really need them for something else. But it is sometimes hard to convince health care professionals and patients about the future problems for other people, "said Blau.
The report recommended that the IAAP countries need to plan and finance their responses to antibiotic resistance. They must regulate the use of antibiotics and make sure that there is a program to raise awareness for the responsible use of antibiotics, both in humans and animals. There should also be research and development of new technologies to combat antimicrobial resistance. The use of critical antibiotics to promote growth in agriculture should be discontinued promptly.
It is important to note that many African countries have not yet signed up for a global system of Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance.
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