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The scientists say their findings have important implications for a better and clearer understanding of the processes occurring in the Sun's atmosphere, some of which can affect the Earth.
Researchers from Aberystwyth University in Wales, Queen's University of Belfast and other universities across Europe found that the Sun's magnetic field is about ten times more powerful than previously thought.
The findings of scientists, published in the journal Astrophysical Journal, were made possible by Dr. David Kuridze and careful observation of his team especially powerful solar flare on the surface of the sun for ten days in September 2017 using data from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope in Roke- de Los Muchachos observers in the Canary islands.
Using spectropolarimeters high resolution images of the telescope, and using a combination of "certain favorable conditions" and a bit of luck on what is going to focus only on the right-volatile region of the sun, where solar flares hit Kuridze doctor and his staff were able to get previously unheard magnetic field measurements of actual power in the flare.
"Everything that happens in the outer atmosphere of the Sun is dominated by the magnetic field, but we have very little measurement of its strength and spatial characteristics," explains Dr. Kuridze. «These critical parameters are the most important to the physics of the solar corona," added the scientist, referring to aura plasma surrounds the Sun and other stars, and extends millions of kilometers into space.
The focus on solar flares have allowed researchers, for the first time in history, "to accurately measure the magnetic field coronal loops, magnetic building blocks of the solar corona, with such a degree of accuracy," said Dr. Kuridze.
Previously, scientists were limited to signal the weakness of the Sun's atmosphere that really makes its way to the Earth, and the relatively low power of artificial instruments by magnetic fields, which are studied in the research of Dr. Kuridze and others to register at a whopping 100 times weaker than those which occur in a normal MRI scanner hospital. However, this evidence is still strong enough to limit the solar plasma that make up a solar flare in the range of 20,000 km above the solar surface.
Study co-author Dr. Michael Mathioudakis, a professor at Queen's University Belfast School of Mathematics and Physics, he boasted that the study provides "a unique set of observations" that "for the first time, provide a detailed map of the magnetic field in coronal loops". As a result, according to the scientist, will be the opening of the "new directions in the study of the solar corona." This data, in turn, may well change the understanding of the human processes that occur in the immediate atmosphere of the sun.
Solar flares can cause magnetic storms, which, if they make it back to Earth, creating the effect of the aurora borealis, also known as the Aurora Borealis. For sufficiently intense solar flares threaten to cause significant damage to man-made infrastructure, affecting everything from spacecraft and satellite instruments in Earth orbit to power grids on the ground. In 2011, the year of the National Academy of Sciences estimates that the repetition of a major solar storm like the one that hit the Earth in 1859 can result in $ 2 trillion of the initial damage, and take up to ten years to recover.