Berlin – of course, it's still unbelievable that people flew to the moon, went there cars and even played golf. 20 July 1969 – The mission of "first month" – an important milestone in the history of man. Fifty years later, many still doubt that people have been on the Earth's moon. They believe that the recordings were made in the studio. Ten of the most important arguments:
1. Application: "Swinging" flag
"Swinging" US flag with 39 & # is the most illustrative example intended landing on the Moon. If the wind does not blow on the moon, the flag should not blow, complain critics, however: The movement of tissue that hangs at an intersection, does not come. Breeze, but flagpole oscillations – such as when inserting or alignment as Ralph Jumana stressed from the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Because the moon has no atmosphere, loosening the material is hardly slowed down.
NASA image shows the American astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin (in fact, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr.), who set the US flag on the Moon.
Statement 2: The traces of dust in Lunnoy
Many figures reflect the following spacecraft in lunar dust. According to the critics, as a dry bone dust can contain form. Urs Mall of the Institute for Solar System Research Max Planck explains the good relationship especially with the consistency of a very fine lunar dust. Its building blocks have never been grounded by the wind or water, were fringed and, therefore, particularly well.
American astronaut Buzz Aldrin on the first lunar ascent. Footprints in the earth with a & # 39 are a clear proof of the conspiracy theorists that the landing on the moon never happened.
Third statement: the jump is too low
Horse Racing astronauts on the lunar surface is too low, use the doubt. Given the low gravity – about one-sixth the frequency of the Earth's gravity – the astronaut could jump meters in height. Mall attributes low jumps about 85-kilogram space suits and limited mobility. Jumana adds that it is not about high jumping. From a security perspective spaceship moves with small steps or hops.
4. The problem of responsibility for lunar vehicles
Astronauts drove vehicles on the moon. Given the low gravity, Rover had to jump out of the corners of my doubts. However, centrifugal force is dependent, inter alia, the radius and speed. The maximum speed of vehicles, according to NASA, was about 15 kilometers per hour. In mathematical terms, this corresponds – on a similar background – the centrifugal force that would zazyamlyanaya machine with the same radius, it would be of 37.5 kilometers per hour. The fact that the astronauts ran crooked arms fully, it is unlikely.
Left vehicle Apollo 15 mission in 1971.
5. Repeat the "scene"
The similarity of the lunar landscape on the different images indicates that the studio has always used the same scene. However, recurring motives are not strange, because the astronauts landing on the ground have made thousands of photos from different angles, Mel explains. In addition, he stressed that the local landscape planting in any case are very similar – also because in the world there are no bright optical elements.
6. Statement: None intersection on set
In the lenses of cameras Hasselblad astronauts kept crossroads – in order to better assess the distance. These crossroads seems to disappear behind a & # 39; objects in some areas that are critical of how montage. Upon closer examination often it turns out that crosses it at all, but on a dark background are unlikely to recognize. However, according to Jumana, edited photos were later published.
The descent from the lunar module to the Earth's satellite.
7. Statement: No stars in the sky
Astronauts on the pictures in the sky are no stars. During the day, the astronauts entered the Earth's satellite – the lunar day lasts two weeks. The pictures contrast between the bright and dark lunar surface air is too strong to weak points of light were visible in the sky.
"Sunrise" of the month.
– APA / AFP / NASA / HO
8. Application: Shadow is not suitable
The fact that the shadow of the drawings are or compressed in different directions, leading critics to various light sources. The reason for this with the & # 39 Molly are, above all, non-uniformity of the lunar surface. This can lead to a & # 39; appearance of shadows longer, shorter or distorted.
9. Statement: No crater landing
Under the landing capsules you do not see the landing crater, and almost no dust. It is not surprising, says Jumana: Landing sites were not perpendicular, and flew to the side. The engines have not been able to burn the craters of the moon in hard rock.
For skeptics, it is clear: the engines were not able to burn craters in the hard rock of the moon.
10. Statement: lethal radiation
On the return flight crews were generally exposed in the belt Van Allen radiation around the earth ring, increased emission of particles from the sun. Critics argue that this load can take several hours and can be fatal. Molly estimated Van Allen belt is in an hour, and the crew of a spacecraft protected aluminum shell. Therefore, the astronauts were exposed to radiation but the dose can be controlled. NASA put the mission trajectory so that fly around the strongest radiation areas.
US space agency NASA itself does not comment on the theory of forgery in principle. But a few years ago she published "Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter" photographs Mission (LRO), which is sent to Earth record Seedling "Apollo" with high resolution, despite the fact that they do not want to change the persistent doubts – the figures showing the tools that We left behind traces of bicycles and even the astronauts' footprints.
In addition, according to Mel and Jumana, in six missions involving thousands of employees. "To store a fake secret for decades, I think it's very difficult," – says Mel. Data are also evident: more than 380 kilograms of lunar rock that astronauts brought to Earth, as opposed to – later revealed – the lunar meteorites on Earth. They fell, these pieces have not been changed during their journey through the Earth's atmosphere. (APA /DP)
"Apollo 11" – Blog of the month
Burning 13.5 tons of fuel per second control Michael Collins, Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong. July 16, 1969 at 9:32 am local time around the Cape Kennedy in Florida was struck by thousands of spectators. Running image for the mission "Apollo 11", which for the first time brings humans to the moon. But more needs to be done a long way:
July 16: In under twelve minutes the ship reaches the Earth's orbit. After the successful launch of the crew takes care of small projects ( "How is it going with the increase of the camera?"). After completion of the Saturn V firing step removes the spacecraft to orbit the moon. Remains of the rocket detached only fly a spacecraft and ground probe "Eagle". That it was not unilaterally from the sun, it is rotated at three revolutions per hour on its axis, like barbecue chicken – US space agency Nasa says "barbecue equipment."
17-18. July: In a good mood as it sounds, at least in the radiation movement, the three astronauts are preparing to approach the Moon. No significant problems, the crew can sleep up to ten hours a day. Not that team X & # 39; Euston and Colombia team to discuss at this stage – it's high science. We are talking about deeper issues, such as the temperature of the coffee in the morning ( "not hot, but warm") or – today is very incredible – watching out & # 39; I was on the ground. For example, Aldrin said that the UK is much more green than Spain.
July 19th The moon is approaching. "Columbia" fly by Earth's sphere of attraction to the fact that the attraction of the moon affects it. The moon spaceship with a turning maneuver turns into orbit around the moon.
July 20: Armstrong and Aldrin – because there is no place – in the landing, "Eagle" (German: Adler). They contain cables. Planting is disconnected from the mother. It is "the most ridiculous kind of device that I've ever seen in the sky," Collins said later. In fact, steam is also called "lyatachym bed." Collins will be waiting for their colleagues in orbit about 111 kilometers above the moon.
In the process of landing on-board computer provides multiple alarms – then reason – overload. X & # 39; Euston gives instructions after feverish conversations to ignore the error messages. During the 12-minute maneuver landing Armstrong and radio: "pretty rocky terrain." The autopilot flies the "Eagle" to a place full of boulders, Armstrong corrects the course and sent to a flat landing area.
At 15:17 NASA's X & # 39; Euston received the first words of a man from the surface of the strange celestial body: "Machines, X & # 39; Euston, is a base of peace, the eagle has landed." Cheers on the ground. "You have some people started almost blue, we breathe again," the radio came back. Since then, the astronauts will serve as the resting base, named the landing site in the Mare Trankvilitisis.
In the first hours after landing, Armstrong and Aldryn first ready to return to motherhood, that is, and rest a while. Six and a half hours after landing on the moon and almost 110 hours on the & # 39; exit Armstrong Earth opens the door of the Eagle. The surface is covered with fine, almost powder material, it informs the stairs.
Finally, he begins to jump from the last level. Armstrong notes small step for man, one giant leap for mankind. It is estimated that watching TV more than half a person. Aldryn watching a scene from "Eagle". After 20 minutes, he goes down too. "View" – his first impression. "Is not it so? Great view here," agreed Armstrong. In the end, Aldrin has a poetic moment: "Nice desert."
X & # 39; Euston leads US president Richard Nixon on the moon. "This is probably the most historic appeal of the White House," – he said congratulated the two astronauts. Even in the event of failure of the "Apollo 11" Nixon had prepared a speech. Astronauts are doing some fairly simple experiments, involving the American flag in the lunar soil, leaving the icon and collecting samples of stones. After two and a half hours after the step of Armstrong to the moon two astronauts returned to land. They spread samples thrown from the cab unnecessary equipment, and finally trying to get to sleep.
21-23 July: After 21.5 hours after planting, they are lit lifting step "Eagle" and leave the moon. After two and a half hour ferry again stykovavsya in "Colombia". Aldrin and Armstrong on board patterns. While "Eagle" is unlocked and left behind. Even after seven hours, "Columbia" ignites the movement for the return flight to Earth.
July 24: The spacecraft reached Earth orbit. Shortly thereafter, the crew docked with the command module rear, larger service module "Columbia". With the 110-meter missile launched from the "Apollo 11", it is about 195 hours and over 1.5 million kilometers, with only the well height of three meters and a width of almost four meters. It astronauts again invade the Earth's atmosphere and landing in the Pacific Ocean. X & # 39; Euston again welcomed as Armstrong said landing from a capsule – at least as loud as at landing on the Moon.