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BBC – The Future – Why food poverty health time bomb



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Cary Wright did not feel hungry. Not so, as you might expect. Her stomach growled, but she could hear. She just could not feel it. She called it "starvation mode". Wright, a mother of three living in Aberdeen, hit a low point. But she needed to provide for their children, who were then just entering adolescence.

By the time she was faced with the prospect of watching her own children go without, she fell off contact with his parents and the rest of her family & # 39; and. She wanted to start a new life. In addition, at that moment, in 2013, a new start looking too far. Her partner left and its benefits were far. Now and again she took paid work at home, but never enough money. It will scan its cupboard in desperation, hoping that would be enough soup or bean cans, at least, to get the next meal together.

Because it has always been so little to go around, it did not take long before she began to skip meals. The effects will materialize soon. She was tired all the time – and yet she could not sleep. She was hungry, but she did not want to eat, and if she did, she can sometimes be ill. Her head was worn out. It was difficult to keep the train of thought together.

Wright was exhausted, but desperately not to disclose the degree of fatigue your children. Thus, she will walk around the house with one hand, on the furniture, keeping yourself steady. Sur & # 39; severe iron deficiency, she eventually learned, had a terrible fatigue and it also made her dizzy.

But it was not her own well-being, that she worries about most. It was her children. Try as she might, she could not hide from them the fact that it was not good. They asked her questions: Why is it dizzy all the time? Why she took the pills from the doctor?

And one day she came home to find a glass of milk on the table. Her son, worried about her, poured it. He forced her to drink it until he looked – to make sure it was all that.

"It should not be like that," she says. "Children should not have to worry about your parents like this."

Today, her biggest concern is not what her physical health to take a hit, but the mental health of her children did. What are the psychological scars left as a result of watching their mother starve yourself?

What happened to Wright and her family & # 39; s a & # 39 is common to the much larger number seven & # 39; ads in rich countries than some might think. Food security, also known as food poverty is on the rise in the UK, the ninth richest country in the world. The exact dimensions are unknown. But many other countries are struggling with this problem. There are millions of Seven & # 39; ads in Europe, USA and Canada, for example, who are facing food insecurity right now.

Food banks that distribute free food supply for those who need it, are becoming more and more prevalent in areas where food insecurity has become a persistent problem. (The Trussell Trust, which runs food banks in the UK, recently reported a 19% yoy increase in the number of food parcels concave in the United Kingdom -. 1.6 million in total), but even such groups as Trussell trust agrees that food banks can not be a long term solution. The food that they provide can Var & # 39; iravatstsa in quantity and quality – is often nutritionally limited. Systemic reform, charities say, it is necessary to stop something & # 39; and, that fall into the trap of hunger.

Scientists have shown that hunger is not just something temporary. Hunger in childhood can have a ripple effect that we are only beginning to understand. Long-term physical and psychological consequences of hunger sur & # 39; serious and have implications for the health of the society. Food insecurity may be a ticking time bomb for the current generations of hungry – how dangerous it is?

It is a charity which has helped local people to find a job that someone first mentioned the term "food bank" Wright. But she shuddered at the thought. "No way," she thought. She was terrified that she should seek help from the food bank, social services will take their children away. It was a reflexive reaction, she feels the rest of a child. Her own parents trusted outside agencies and told their children that someone should come to the house, "keep their mouths shut."

So Wright came up with a plan. It will apply to become a volunteer at the food bank instead. "He felt a little better," she says, "to be a little trade."

As a volunteer she could get some support, the odd bit of food. It's worth a shot. During the first few days, she felt awkward and stupid. But then one of the workers, the Donaldson Kelly, took her under his wing. She soon learned that Wright is going through, so now and again to Donaldson put a small food package together for your new friend at the end of the day. "This is your dinner for tonight," she told Wright, encouragingly, handing the bag.

This food bank was one in Aberdeen city center run by community food initiatives Northeast – known as CFINE. Besides the food bank, CFINE offers cooking courses and subsidized fruit and vegetables. And this CFINE headquarters that I was the first person to meet Wright. I come to a busy environment, as people queued for food rations for three days. Assistants are around specific items as small form a queue at the door.

Food parcels presented in the form of white mongrel supporting sacks stuffed with milk, a few cans of food, cereal, rice or pasta and sauce. Within about 20 minutes, the two rows of bags are made up on the shelves disappear. It will not be long until they are replenished. I said that a few weeks ago, CFINE gave out 179 of these bags in one day, the highest number of charity was ever recorded.

Reliance on food banks in Aberdeen high. There are 20 such services in the city – more than in any other city in Scotland, including the more populous Glasgow and Edinburgh. Power Bank products are becoming more common with the & # 39; a reality in many places – for example, in rural US communities in Canadian cities as well as in rich European countries. Scotland does not in any way with the & # 39 is the secret.

Before you get a chance to meet, I spot Wright rushing into the interview room & # 39; u, to give advice to the young man. He has long hair, camouflage pants. His dog came with him. Wright now with the & # 39 is part of a team of financial opportunities. It's her job to help people manage their finances. The role includes assisting the application of benefits – just kind of hoops she had to learn to jump through itself, in order to keep her family & # 39; th feed.

Wright tells me that she still worried that her children are gone.

"Health of my children was not compromised in the physical sense, but I would say, in terms of their mental well-being, of course," she explains. "They were concerned and worried about his mother. They were worried about going to school, because they do not We were unsure what was happening with my health. "

Signs of going fast, that more and more children in rich countries are experiencing hunger and its negative consequences. Just a week before my visit to Scotland, the UN Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights criticized the British government behind the scenes of poverty he witnessed on a trip to the UK. The extent of child poverty in the UK, he said, "not just a shame, and social distress and economic disaster, all in one."

The situation is no better across the Atlantic. In the US, one in five children to school hungry. Canada had a visit by the UN Special Rapporteur in 2012 and found the food security, to be sur & # 39; oznay problem.

Where hunger is growing, the consequences are bad. The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health and the Trussell Trust among those concerned about how food insecurity can affect the health of children. But what, specifically, are these consequences will be?

In a telephone conversation with Valery Tarasyuk at the University of Toronto, I think the experience of Cary Wright and her worries about her children mental well-being.

"This woman, obviously very insightful," said Tarasyuk. "This is exactly what we should be concerned about among these children."

Tarasyuk with & # 39; is a professor of nutritional sciences and an expert on the relationship between food security and health. She and her colleagues analyzed national data on tens of thousands of Canadians, to show that the experience more severe food insecurity are, the more likely they are to seek help from health services. But it also keeps track of research that examines the long-term consequences for children living in conditions of food insecurity at home.

Research team at the University of Calgary, including Sharon Kirkpatrick and Lyn McIntyre showed that the starving only a few times associated with poorer physical and mental health. It also means that children are less likely to finish high school.

In one six-year study, McIntyre and his colleagues found that young people who have experienced hunger, had a significantly higher risk of developing depressive symptoms. And another large analysis showed that children who were starving, were also exposed to the risk of some health problems over the next 10 years. Hunger, the researchers wrote, had "toxic" effect "is a higher chance of chronic diseases and asthma was observed among young people who have experienced several episodes of hunger compared with those who were never hungry."

These results held even when other things that can affect health, were taken into account – the hunger really seems to play a decisive role.

"The risk that children left a deep impression on them," said Tarasyuk. "It's really a bad idea to be leaving so much suffering in this situation."

The team is initially focusing on young people, who represent one of the four "tagged" conditions – eczema, constipation, asthma and epilepsy.

In the UK, long-term data, such as used Tarasyuk and her colleagues are hard to find. But there are efforts to expand our knowledge of how food insecurity, health-related, albeit in a very localized contexts.

Basic research efforts led by King's College London is currently carried out in two major areas of the city south of the capital, Lambeth and Southwark. This led Ingrid Wolfe, who is also a pediatric consultant. She says that part of the motivation has seen more children hospitalized & E with seizures caused by vitamin deficiency. "It is very, very serious significant malnutrition," she says.

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Children and Young People's Partnership Health (CYPHP, ironically said "chip") with a & # 39 Wolfe and the efforts of her colleagues to study the biopsychosocial context for young people who use medical care. In other words, it is an attempt to understand the things that happen in a young person's life may have contributed to the state, which leads them to the doctor.

The team is initially focusing on young people, who represent one of the four conditions of tracer. There are currently about 1,000 members CYPHP and the program will add more in the coming years.

Wolf says that the participants fill out a detailed questionnaire about their online family life. Questions include things about the stability of the home environment, food and social life of young people.

There are indications that food insecurity can be a significant factor in the health of young people than was previously known. Among the participants with constipation, for example, food insecurity was a problem in 90% of them.

Ultimately, CYPHP seeks to improve children's health, identifying the factors that may affect the well-being so that they can be resolved – instead of waiting for kids to get to the point, that require medical treatment. By the time of compounding issues can be much harder to fix.

The fact that food insecurity in a rich country can be so detrimental to the long-term health of the child with the & # 39 is troubling. Even more concerned with the & # 39 it is the realization that, while Canada and the United States are making efforts to monitor food security among the population, there is no equivalent in the UK measurement. However, this will soon change: The Department of Labor and pensions should include questions about food safety in its annual survey of the living standards of households. The first data will be available in 2021.

Conditions associated with the lack of food security is already very visible to the doctors, however. Anyone who regularly sees the effects of hunger in children Ronny Cheung, general consultant pediatrician in London. He sends me the data that show how in the last 20 years, England, there is a marked increase in the incidence of rickets, which required hospitalization. There is now a child's hospitalization for rickets, than at any time in the past five decades. Rickets can not always only be linked to diet, because vitamin D deficiency can also be caused by lack of sunlight. However, "food rickets' with & # 39 is diagnosed when it is clear that the food intake of the child was subpar.

When I meet him in a small office in the center of London Hospital, Cheung recalls the case of 18-month-old boy, he saw recently. The boy's mother took him to the GP, because he has difficulty in learning to walk. If Cheung brought him into closer inspection, it became clear why. He was very bowlegged, the hallmark of rickets. Not only that, but the boy had developed bone nobbles at the ends of his ribs all the way up, known as rachitic rosary.

"It's really rare," Cheung says to me. "It's like a textbook things that nobody sees, and this child was them, because the deficit was so sur & # 39;. Oznym"

After he talked to the boy's mother about his diet, it became clear that this was a case of nutritional rickets. After the course of the addition, followed by an improved diet plan, rickets boy back. At such a young age, children grow so quickly that their bones can correct themselves – as long as the body begins to get the right nutrients.

When we see bursts of rare diseases, which tells us that there is a real problem for this we are not testing for or that we do not know about – Ronny Cheung

Cheng believes that we should not consider such cases as an anomaly. "If we see bursts of rare diseases that are telling us that there is a real problem for this we are not testing for or that we do not know. This lighthouse, right? That's what it is. "

We know that poor diet can affect the health of children. But what actually happens in the body here? In addition, low levels of vitamin D, which can also be different on nutrient intake malnutrition leads the child?

tip the scales

The house where the parents or guardians who rely on cheaper food, children's consumption of sugary and fatty foods tend to increase. Diets may become less balanced and, therefore, micronutrient intake will decrease as a result. Some of the first disadvantages with the & # 39 there may be a deficiency of iron – as an experienced Cary Wright – along with vitamin A and iodine deficiency.

Iodine – much in the white fish and dairy products – this is especially important for brain development. The British Medical Association said iodine deficiency with & # 39 is "the leading cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage, which have the most devastating impact on the brain of the developing fetus and young children during the first few years of life."

And let's not forget, obesity. Sometimes people hear the word "malnutrition" and think that it means lack of food, which leads to someone becomes dull and haggard. In fact, while malnutrition is a & # 39 is a form of malnutrition, obesity with a & # 39 is different. It's just the other end of the scale.

The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health said that obesity is correlated with deprivation. "In England it appears that overweight and obesity can be to reduce over time the least deprived, but not among the most disadvantaged."

Unfortunately, the lack of diet can never cause a response from the doctors when these problems do not become suras & # 39; serious. The Donaldson Kelly, Wright each CFINE, says that she and her three children have become obese as a result of relying on cheap, easy to prepare meals. «Гэта было досыць лёгка атрымаць, як мех чыпсаў і мяшок каўбас, а не выходзіць і купляць здаровыя рэчы," тлумачыць яна. «Лекар кажа, што яны былі здаровыя дастаткова дзяцей, толькі крыху" пухлы ", я думаю, было слова, якое ён выкарыстаў.»

Калі Donaldson даведаўся толькі, як пераўтваральны здаровае харчаванне можа быць падчас працы ў CFINE, яна змяніла свае кулінарныя звычкі дома. Яна ўжо заўважыла страту вагі ў яе малодшага хлопчыка.

Паляпшэнне дыета не можа быць проста зроблена харчовымі банкамі. Нават арганізацыі, якія кіруюць ім сказаць. Але ёсць яшчэ адзін спосаб – тое, што называецца «чалавек-арыентаваны падыход».

Гэта ў цяперашні час разгортваецца ў Вялікабрытаніі, хоць і не ў бальніцах і урачэбных установах. Гэта праца дабрачынных арганізацый.

Сыход на кухні

«Я люблю гаварыць з народам,» кажа Sheena Бойд, з вялікай усмешкай. «Вы зразумееце, што да канца дня.» Яна смяецца ад душы. Яна з'яўляецца кіраўніком праекта на дабрачынныя мэты пад назвай Centrestage, якая месьціцца ў горадзе Кілмарнок, на паўднёвы-захад ад Глазга. Яе праца складаецца ў тым, каб кіраваць двума праграмамі: адна, якая забяспечвае свежыя стравы для людзей у бедных раёнах, а другі, які працуе супольнасці кулінарныя курсы.

Да таго як яна працавала тут Бойд працаваў у банку. Тады яе сябар, які працаваў на Centrestage, узяў яе на экскурсію па дзейнасці дабрачыннай арганізацыі. Яна была здзіўленая. Яе сябар абвясціў, што было адкрыццё працы – гэта было Бойд, калі яна хацела. Яна не павінна думаць двойчы, перш чым прыняць.

«Я толькі што бачыў, што дапамога тут для гэтых людзей, што я не быў у стане зрабіць у банку," тлумачыць яна. Іскра запальваецца ў яе галаве: «Я магу выйсці і дапамагчы гэтым людзям.»

Калі Centrestage быў запушчаны 13 гадоў назад, яго стваральнікі не мелі ніякага намеры карміць людзей. Яны хацелі, каб забяспечыць тэатральную групу для мясцовых жыхароў. Ідэя складалася ў тым, каб паставіць на вялікіх шоў з трохі вялікай колькасцю гудзення і шыкам, чым гэта магчыма, скажам, школа драмы аддзелаў. Акрамя таго, хто зможа не далучыцца, незалежна ад іх узросту або фону.

Гэта было толькі, як лідэры пачалі больш шчыльна супрацоўнічаць з мясцовымі супольнасцямі, што яны зразумелі, што адсутнасць харчовай бяспекі была такая праблема – на самай справе, гэта можа нават стаць перашкодай для людзей, якія прымаюць удзел у чымсьці накшталт тэатральнага праекта. Калі вы галодныя, вы не можаце чакаць, каб выступіць перад сотнямі ці працаваць на працягу некалькіх гадзін за кулісамі.

Centrestage працягвае ставіць на грамадскіх шоу, але запаўненне жываты зараз ключавой задачай. Дэвіз групы з'яўляецца «Fun, ежа, народ.»

«Гэта наш дэвіз,» кажа Бойд. «Усё гэта весела, усё робіць, што людзі расслабленыя, яны адчувалі сябе жаданымі, яны не адчуваюць сябе запалохаць, яны не адчуваюць сябе судзіць.»

Яна бачыла для сябе, як адсутнасць ежы можа аказваць негатыўнае ўздзеянне на маладых людзей. Дзеці могуць стамляюцца з-за голаду, – але яны таксама могуць выпрабоўваць супрацьлеглы эфект. Для дзяцей з СДВГ, напрыклад, голад можа выклікаць гіперактыўнасць. На адным з варачных вядома, высілак Бойда, каб пачаць клас стрымлівалася хлопчык бегае па пакоі. Яна працягнула бутэрброды. «Пасля таго, як ён паеў, ён супакоіўся,» кажа яна.

Centrestage па праекце Дарожнай з'яўляецца двухпавярховы аўтобус, які падарожнічае і стравы да ежы. Boyd імкнецца паказаць мне аўтобус, які сёння знаходзіцца ў раёне пад назвай Shortlees, на поўдні Кілмарноку, дзе, шакіруюча, 37% дзяцей жывуць у беднасці. Але перш чым я бачу аўтобус, мне трэба, каб засведчыць, што кухню маслабойку з тысячы падрыхтаваных страў кожнага тыдня, кажа Бойд.

Цягнем да вялікага блока шэры склад на прамысловай нерухомасці. Неба шэрае таксама. Але калі дзверы пішчыць, як мы ўваходзім у блок Centrestage, у пах прыгатавання ежы раптам дае колер. Кухары матацца, усё ў чорных і зручныя паходныя чаравікі з збанамі розных сумесяў або велізарныя латкі для печаў.

Порцыі ежы прыгатаваныя тут дадзены людзям у месцах Centrestage. Вы таксама можаце купіць іх, проста фунт або так, у кафэ. Стараюся адзін пазней – макароны з смажанымі гароднінай, смачны соус і трохі сыру, пасыпаюць зверху. Па-сапраўднаму прыемная ежа. Таксама даступны ў той жа дзень быў панир кары з рысам, і гаршкі чырвонага перцу супу.

Як кіроўца на аўтобус у Іэн Maconochie, кажа, харчовыя банкі часта просяць ваўчараў – ці «chitties» – перад тым, раздаючы пастаўкі. «Nae chitties тут,» кажа ён, «НАЗ chitties.»

Добраахвотнікі будуць з задавальненнем раздаюць ежу бясплатна, хоць яны і пытаюцца, ці могуць людзі спрабуюць бюджэту кожны тыдзень, і зрабіць невялікае ахвяраванне, скажам, фунт ці два фунта. У любым выпадку, Maconochie кажа, што ніхто не адвярнуўся. Колькасьць людзей, якія выкарыстоўваюць шыны і іншых пунктаў размеркавання харчавання Centrestage з'яўляецца ашаламляльным. У перыяд з ліпеня па верасень 2018 года, дарослыя атрымлівалі ежу амаль 6000 раз і дзіця на каля 2200 раз.

Іншая частка ролі Бойда заключаецца ў аказанні дапамогі людзям, каб навучыцца рыхтаваць, каб яны маглі лепш клапаціцца пра сябе. Centrestage набыла старую школу ў Кілмарноку, што ў бліжэйшыя некалькі гадоў будзе рэканструявана стаць штаб-кватэрай дабрачыннай арганізацыі. Старая сталовая стане кафэ, дзе падаюць недарагія стравы. У актавай зале будуць ператвораныя ў іх флагманскі тэатральнай прасторы. Аўдыторыі будуць выпускаць мясцовыя ініцыятывы, якія жадаюць выкладаць навыкі людзей, такія, як цырульні.

І стары эканамічны аддзел дома будзе дзе Бойд арганізуе яе кулінарныя курсы. Першы раз, калі яна ўбачыла шэрагі ракавін і варачных панэляў, яна была здзіўленая. «Я проста расплакалася,» узгадвае яна.

Бойд і яе калегі, разам з многімі добраахвотнікамі, якія спрабуюць змагацца з беднасцю ў наўмысна цэласна. Народная Дабрабыт можа быць вельмі хутка пакутуюць ад голаду, але гэта ніколі не ўся гісторыя. Так, акрамя танных страў і кулінарных майстэрняў, супрацоўнікі Centrestage і добраахвотнікі імкнуцца дапамагчы з карысцю формамі, або жыллёвымі праграмамі або праблемамі занятасці. Жанчына ў выніку чаго яе дачку ў аўтобус меў рацыю: гэта не ежа банка. Гэта значна больш, чым гэта. Як Boyd выказаўся, «Мы можам сказаць:" Добра, што адбываецца? Мы можам дапамагчы вам у любой іншай форме. »

Кэры Райт і яе калегі CFINE ў Абердзіна таксама знайсці сябе, якія прадстаўляюць шырокі спектр падтрымкі мясцовага насельніцтва. Дабрачынныя падабаецца гэтая мэта, каб атрымаць пад скурай нешта значна больш: пазбаўлення сябе. Ежа можа быць проста першае, што прыносіць каму-то праз дзверы.

Галоўны выканаўчы CFINE, у Дэйв кіпяць, хацеў бы яго арганізацыі засяродзіцца на аказанні дапамогі людзям, каб дапамагчы сабе. Але ўзровень крызісу ён бачыць людзей у сродках, якія працуюць у харчовай банк, а таксама мае важнае значэнне.

«Нам не падабаецца, харчовыя банкі наогул,» кажа ён, як рабочыя раздаюць прадуктовыя пасылкі за ўсё ў некалькіх футах ад дзвярэй яго кабінета. «Яны не дапамагаюць, яны падрываюць годнасць, яны ствараюць залежнасць, і яны нічога не мяняюць.

«Але, па сутнасці, людзі галадаюць.»

жыццё Райта, магчыма, была выратавана ежай слоікам CFINE, нават калі б яна прыйшла да яго, нібыта ў якасці добраахвотніка, а не карыстальніка. І ўсё ж кропка кіпяць з нагоды ежы банкаў-бескарысны мае сэнс у больш шырокім кантэксце галоднага народа. Павышэнне справядлівасці сістэмы ільгот і маніторынгу і забеспячэння харчавання дзяцей будзе некалькі першых крокаў, якія могуць рухацца сям'і ад апоры на харчовыя банкі.

пераўтвараючы жыццё

Для Райта, ён працаваў на харчовай дабрачынную арганізацыю, якая на самай справе атрымала яе назад на нагах, а не доступ да бясплатнай ежы. Сёння яна выказвае сапраўднае імкненне да працы, якую яна робіць. Цяпер яна працуе 29 гадзін у тыдзень у CFINE. Яна, нарэшце, мае сталы прыбытак. У гэтым годзе, па яе словах, яна будзе бездолговой ўпершыню за доўгі час. Яна быць вельмі асцярожным, хоць. Калі гэта трохі холадна, яна імкнецца не ставіць дадатковы £ 10 у газавым лічыльніку – у выпадку, калі гэта азначае, што яна разряжается на еду на наступным тыдні.

Але фізічнае здароўе яе дзяцей добра. Яны сталі больш актыўнымі. Цяпер яны займаюцца спортам і адзін ідзе да курсантам.

І сустрэўшы яе на CFINE, я атрымліваю пачуццё, што Райт, як яе сяброўка Кэлі Donaldson, знайшоў ролю, якая не толькі дапаможа ёй тут і цяпер – гэта тое, што яна можа абапірацца.

«У мяне ёсць вернасці тут,» кажа яна. «Таму што яны сапраўды дапамагаюць людзям трансфармаваць свае акалічнасці. Гэта аказвае ўплыў на фізічнае здароўе, псіхічнае здароўе і жыццёвых сітуацыях «.

Donaldson трубы ўверх і паказвае на тое, як Райт відавочна больш шчаслівым. Яна ўстае кожны дзень. Ставіць яе макіяж на. Ідзе працаваць. Гэта мае вялікае значэнне – для ўсёй сям'і.

«Гэта робіць,» кажа Райт. «Гэта аказвае ўплыў на сваіх дзяцей.»

Гэты артыкул была ўпершыню апублікаваная на мазаіка on Wellcome і перавыдадзены тут у адпаведнасці з ліцэнзіяй Creative Commons.

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