Donald Trump does not always speak lovingly premiership & # 39; er Minister of Canada, but it is a recognized supporter of the immigration system in Canada – and he reportedly established to review the proposed plan, which functions in a similar way.
His son and adviser, Jared Kushner, is expected to present a new proposal for immigration reform President this week, with the key principle that it will include a "merit-based" model.
In January 2018, Trump told reporters: "I think we should be based on individual immigration merit, they in Canada as they are in Australia, so we have people who come in that have a good track record list. "
The Canadian government does not officially use the term "merit-based" describes a system, implemented in 1967, as "on the basis of points" or one that says "skilled workers." Australia is modeled on its version of Canada in 1989.
This is not the first time, US lawmakers N insisted on "merit" system in this country, but what works in Canada, not necessarily to fly to the United States, the United States and experts warn Canadian immigration policy.
What Trump meant by "merit-based"?
The President did not specify exactly what he has in mind. Broadly speaking, the idea is that people have basic desirable traits – a higher level of education, sponsorship by an employer, knowledge of English, sought professional knowledge, money to support themselves, work proposals – will be the best shot on admission.
In his first address to Congress in 2017, Trump said: "People all over the world, such as Canada, Australia and many others have merit immigration system", describing the plan as "a basic principle that those seeking to enter the country must be able to support themselves financially. "
That in terms of Kouchner?
We do not know how many of the broad outlines of the proposal. Kouchner said the plan is meant to be a bipartisan move to curb illegal immigration, and will have a program for migrant workers to make agricultural and seasonal employment, measures to improve trade flows, as well as the proposal on immigration merits.
Kouchner said his plan would be "neutral" in the total number of legal immigrants entering the country.
Immigration experts expect his offer will reflect aspects of the RAISE (American Immigration reform of employment Strong) Act, a bill introduced in the 2017 Republican senators David Perd & # 39; nd & Tom Cotton and approved Trump at the time.
Thus, there is a potential model. What does this bill all about?
LIFT Law proposed to reduce the overall level of legal immigration by 50 percent. The number of green cards issued will be doubled to 500,000 per year, and the diversity visa lottery (55,000 awarded annually) will be eliminated.
Its scoring system considers the knowledge of the English language, salary and compensation, and "outstanding achievement", such as which of the & # 39; is the winner of the Nobel Prize.
"It would distort the employment-based immigration system, only the top-top-top people in the world," said Theresa Brown, director of immigration and cross-border policy with the Bipartisan Policy Center, a centrist research group in Washington, DC
The New York Times estimated only two percent of Americans have passed the bar set by the Law on the raise.
immigration policy experts think immigration diversification path of & # 39 is a good idea. The question is whether the changes come at the expense of other groups.
Has a US patent deemed "merit-based" immigration before?
The George W. Bush administration, the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 put forward the green card system, which would be the priorities of highly skilled workers, ranked by challenging credit system, and would also be offered to the legal status of some 11 million undocumented immigrants. Bush backs the bill failed to clear the Senate after members of his own Republican Party gave up their case.
A few decades ago, President Lyndon B. Johnson pushed its system capacity on the basis of economic choice. But the idea of prioritizing immigration skills was torpedoed largely primarily southern members of Congress, who feared, ironically, that the employment focus allows foreigners with non-white countries "upset" the ethnic section of the United States at the time,
Johnson's efforts have not succeeded, resulting in the current system of family sponsorship.
Why Trump mention the system of Canada?
When the program enters Express Canada, immigrants are ranked on a scale of points for factors such as the English and French language, age, and whether the applicant has a brother or sister lives in Canada, which has a & # 39; is a citizen or permanent resident.
A foreigner with a professional degree can rack up the points to go to Canada, but that does not mean that they will work in their chosen profession. Doctors and engineers often find themselves behind the wheel of a taxi in Canada.
Measurements Express Entry Canada intended to assess the likelihood of integration in economic and social terms, but such estimates have also been criticized as "heartless."
"The merit implies that all other ways to get to the United States are not based on merit," said Irene Bloemraad, Chair of Canadian Studies at the University of California at Berkeley. "You can not tell me that just being [in the right age group] this is some kind of merit-based criteria. "
As the US system is different?
One way to look at it & # 39 is that US immigration based prioritizes more family ties, while the Canada prizes "economic immigrants".
In the US, family immigration accounted for almost two-thirds of all legal permanent migration each year, according to the nonpartisan Migration Policy Institute, a think tank in Washington, DC
That's how it was with the Law on Immigration and Nationality Act 1965, however, Trump opposed the idea that immigrants get recognition through sponsorship by family members & # 39; and who had previously emigrated, describing him mockingly as "chain migration" .
The scoring system will shift the focus to skilled workers for substituting & # 39; family unity & # 39; and.
Why is it controversial?
According to the Congressional Research Service, the majority of the seven & # 39; ads based on immigrants in the United States in recent years have come from Mexico, the Philippines, in the & # 39; etnama, China, India and the Dominican Republic. Many people come on family visa and is expected to sponsor other relatives.
Critics of US structures points say that the overhaul of the system to focus on certain skilled immigrants – without also raising the ceiling for other types of immigrants, such as refugees and family sponsorship path – can distort in the side of white and European candidates.
If Kouchner plan does not increase the overall cap on immigration levels, employers can prioritize people with language skills and education in the western sciences, while there would be fewer family visas for immigrants of color.
For some of those who are currently in the system, which could be viewed as a queue jumping.
"Many of the sponsored immigrant, or are in the process of sponsoring people. The extent to which immigration laws is due to those who are already in the queue a zero sum game », Bloemraad said.
"I do not think it will be as controversial if they just expanded the pie."
Are Canadians satisfied with our system?
It looks that way. Ottawa announced late last year that it plans to increase the level of immigration in the coming years. In a survey conducted last year, more than three-quarters of Canadians (76 per cent) continued to see immigration has a positive impact on the Canadian economy.
immigration rate in Canada is 2.6 times more than in the US, according to an analysis conducted by the Cato Institute. Besides immigration of economically, Canada is also ahead of the US in per capita resettlement of refugees. In 2017, Canada led the world to resettle 725 refugees per million inhabitants, compared with the United States, which moved 102 refugees per one million inhabitants, according to the Pew Research Center.
According to the analysis of Pew Research, 2017 was the first year that the US resettled refugees less than the rest of the world.
Weight history questions. In the Canadian case Bloemraad said immigrants, as the idea of an economic choice, because it seems rational and productive for the economy.
"But the immigrants who come to the well to be invested in it, because, as they came in, and you're not necessarily going to criticize the system that you used."
Canadians for decades absorbed values of the points-based systems as a transparent, fair, and depart, she said.
These views can be reflected in a recent global survey conducted by the Pew, we found that most Canadians have a favorable opinion of immigration among the top 18 countries of migrant destination in the world, with 68 percent of respondents agreed with the statement that immigrants "make our country stronger." The US is the sixth with the point of view of relationships, who agreed with this statement (59 percent).
Whether the US could simply accept the Canadian system?
One-size-fits-all solution to the & # 39 is realistic. On the one hand, there are various board system.
Brown proposed a parliamentary system of Canada provides "greater freedom" to adjust the immigration system without having to go back to the adoption of new legislation through the two powerful houses of the US Congress.
In the United States, she said, "there is not much room for the executive [branch] adjust immigration caps, for example. They are all set in the statute. They can not distinguish a visa in any case, different than in the status ".
And then there are geographical considerations.
In Canada, about one-tenth of the population of the United States and Canada has the same problems as the southern border, where the flows of migrants and asylum-seekers looking for flow through, sometimes out of the system.
"You can not ever really talk to the US immigration system, not recognizing the fact that there is somewhere in the region of 10 million illegal immigrants in the United States," said Dan Hiebert, an immigration expert of University of British Columbia, specializing in Canadian policy towards other countries.
"When people talk about immigration to Canada, they only think of it as a managed system. In the United States, they think of it as a system, that is, roughly 20 percent of unmanaged, in the sense of the scale of unregistered immigration ".